Monday, March 28, 2011

Kennen - The Heart of the Tempest

There exists an ancient order originating in the Ionian Isles dedicated to the preservation of balance. Order, chaos, light, darkness -- all things must exist in perfect harmony for such is the way of the universe. This order is known as the Kinkou and it employs a triumvirate of shadow warriors to uphold its causes in the world. Kennen is one of these shadow warriors, entrusted with the sacred duty of Coursing the Sun - tirelessly conveying the justice of the Kinkou.

Kennen was born in Bandle City and it is said that in his first living moments he bolted first from the womb and second from the midwife who delivered him. His parents had thought that he would outgrow his boundless energy, but as he matured, his energy found no limits and was matched only by his unnerving speed. Despite his astonishing gifts, he remained unnoticed (or at least uncaught, as he was quite the prankster) until, on a dare, he ran straight up the great outer wall of the Placidium. When word of this feat reached Kinkou ears, Kennen was quickly and quietly brought for an audience. He found that the role of the Heart of the Tempest suited him, frenetically delivering both the word and the punishments of the Kinkou across the realm. He now works with his fellows Akali and Shen to enforce the balance of Valoran. This hallowed pursuit has unsurprisingly led the triumvirate to the Fields of Justice.

Shen - The Eye of Twilight

There exists an ancient order originating in the Ionian Isles dedicated to the preservation of balance. Order, chaos, light, darkness -- all things must exist in perfect harmony, for such is the way of the universe. This order is known as the Kinkou and it employs a triumvirate of shadow warriors to uphold its causes in the world. Shen is one of these shadow warriors, entrusted with the sacred duty of Watching the Stars - exercising judgment untainted by prejudice.

Born to a clan whose members have decorated the ranks of the Kinkou for generations, Shen was trained his entire life to become the Eye of Twilight, and thereupon to dispassionately determine what must be done in the interests of equilibrium. As his final trial to ascend to this position, he was made to attend the Takanu, a ceremony in which his father was tortured before his eyes to test his resolve. Any reaction whatsoever would have resulted in his immediate disqualification, but he never averted his gaze and never blinked, not once. As the Eye of Twilight, Shen must make decisions which would buckle the wills of ordinary men, removing all emotion from the equation. He now works with his fellows Akali and Kennen to enforce the balance of Valoran. This hallowed pursuit has unsurprisingly led the triumvirate to the Fields of Justice.

Wednesday, March 23, 2011

Present Worth (PW) and Future Worth (FW) for Project Evalutaion

Financial decisions require consideration of projected revenues and expenditure over period of time being considered. Performing a Cost/Benefit Analysis is essential to sound financial decision making. A critical part of a Cost Benefit Analysis is determining the value of money over time.

Future value measures what today's money would be worth at a specified time in the future assuming a certain discount rate

Present value measure what money at a specified period of time in the future would be worth if valued in terms of today's money.

A capital project must provide a return that exceeds a minimum level established by the organization. The minimum level is reflected in a firm's Minimum Attractive Rate of Return (MARR) or hurdle rate. MARR is treated as the interest rate chargedd by the source of the capital. In theory, the MARR is the interest rate that could be received if the funds were invested elsewhere. In practice, it is determined by the top-management and depends on:

the amount of money available for investment
the source and cost of these funds
the number of good project available for investment opportunities
the cost of administering investments
the type of organization

The most used method is the present worth (PW) method. It is a function of i% (found by discounting all cash inflows and outflows to the present time at an interest rate that is generally the MARR. A positive PW for an investment project means that the project is acceptable.

Net Present Worth (NPW) is the future stream of benefits and cost converted into equivalent values today. Program with a positive NPW are generally cost effective and the another way round. NPW is a criterion for deciding whether a project can be justified on economic principles.

PW(i%) = F(1+i)^-k

Example: Which is more financially sound project? Project A produce $5000 in 2006, Project B produces $5200 in 2007... (i assumed 4.5%)
2006 is PV and 2007 is FV.
PV of 2007 = $5200/(1+0.45) = $4976
Hence Project A is chosen.

Example2: Consider a project that has an initial investment of $50000 and that returns $18000 per year for the next four years. If the MARR is 12%, is this a good investment?
PW = -50000 + 18000(P/A, 12%, 4) = $4671.40
This is a good investment.

The commercial value of a bond is the PW of all future net cash flows expected to be received the period dividend [face or par value (Z) times the bond or nominal rate per interest period,r], and the redemption of disposal price (C), all discounted to the present at the bond;s ield rate per period or effective interest rate, i%.
Vn = C(P/F, i%, N) + rZ(P/A, i%, N)

Example: What is the current value (PW) of a 6% bond rate, 10-year bond with a par (and redemption) value of $20000 that pays dividends semi-annually, if the purchaser wishes to earn an 8% return?
N = 10 x 2 = 20 period before redemption (semi-annually)
r = 6%/2 = 3% per period
i = 8%/2 = 4% per period
C = Z = $20000
Vn = C(P/F, i%, N) + rZ(P/A, i%, N)
= $20000(P/F,4%,20)+(0.03)$20000(P/A,4%,20) = $17282.18

Capitalized worth (CW) is a special variation of present worth of all revenues or expenses over an infinite length of time. The capitalized worth method is especially useful in problems involving endowments and public projects with indefinite lives.

Capitalized worth calculation
1. Draw a cash-flow diagram showing all nonrecurring costs and at least twoo cucles of all recurring (periodic) costs and receipts.
2. Find the present worth of all nonrecurring amounts.
3. Find the equivalent annual worth through one cycle of recurring amounts and add this to all other uniform amounts occurring in years 1 through infinity. This results in a total equivalent uniform annual worth (AW).
4. Divide AW obtained in step 3 by the interest rate to get its capitalized worth.
5. Ass the CW values obtained in steps 2 and 4.

Example: Construction cost: $2000000, Annual maintenance cost: $50000, renovation cost: $500000 every 15 years, Planning horizon: infinite period, Interest rate: 5%...
P = 2000000 + 50000/0.05 + 500000(A/F, 5%, 15)/0.05 = $3464423

Future worth (FW) method is alternative to PW method. FW is based on the equivalent worth of all cash inflows and outflows at the end of the study period at an interest rate that is generally the MARR. Decision made using FW and PW will be the same.

Example: A $4500 investment in a new conveyor system is projected to improve throughout and increasing revenue by $14000 per year for five years. The conveyor will have an estimated market value of $4000 at the end of five years. Using FW and a MARR of 12%, is this good investment?
FW = -$45000(F/P, 12%, 5 + $14000(F/A, 12%, 5) + $4000 = $13635.70
Hence a good investment.

Example2: A company purchased a store chain for $75 million three years ago. There was a et loss of $10 million at the end of year 1 of ownership. Net cash flow is increasing with an arithmetic gradient of $5 million per year starting the second year, and thi pattern is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. Expected MARR of 25% per year...
The comapany has just been offered $159.5 million to sell the store. Use FW analysis to determine if the MARR will be realized at this selling price...
FW = -75(F/P, 25%, 3) - 10((F/P, 25%, 2) - 5(F/P, 25%, 1) + 159.5
= -8.86million
The MARR of 25% will not be realized if the $159.5million offer is accepted.
If the company continues to own the chain, what selling price must be obtained at he end of 5 years of ownership to make the MARR?
FW = -75(F/P, 25%, 5) - 10(F/A, 25%, 5) + 5(A/G, 25%, 5)(F/A, 25%, 5)
= -$246.81 million
The offer must be for at least $246.81 million to make the MARR.

Annual worth is an equal periodic series of dollar amounts that is equivalent to the cash inflows and outflows, at an interest rate that is generally the MARR.
AW(i%) = Revenue - Expenses - CR(i%)

Annual worth analysis measure an investment worth on annual basis. It helps to seek consistency of report format, determine the unit cost and facillitate the unequal project life comparison. AW is easily understood as the results are reported in $/time period.

Example: Consider a project with $30 annual operating cost and a $5000 inverstment required each 5 years. i = 10%
For 1 cycle, EAC = 3000 + 5000(A/P, 10%, 5) = $4.319/yr
For 2 cycle, EAC = 3000 + 5000[1 + (P/F, 10%, 5)](A/P, 10%,10)
= $4319/yr

Capital Recovery (CR) is the annual equivalent cost of the capital invested. The CR covers loss in value of the asset and interest on invested capital (at the MARR). The CR distributes the initial cost(I) and the salvage value (S) across the life of the asset.
CR(i%) = I(A/P, i%, N) - S(A/F, i%, N)

Example: A project requires an initial investment of $45000, has a salvage value of $12000 after six years, incurs annual expenses of $6000 and provides an annual revenue of $18000. Using a MARR of 10%, determine the AW of this project.
AW(10%) = R - E - CR(10%)
CR(10%) = 45000(A/P, 10%, 6) - 12000(A/F, 10%, 6) = 8777
AW(10%) = 18000 - 6000 - 8777 = $3223
Since the AW is positive, it's a good investment.

Example: Land and building cost: $3500000, Annual upkeep cost: $150000, Property taxes and insurance: 5% of total investment, Study period: 25 years, Salvage value: only land cost can be recovered in full...
Ownership cost: CR(15%) = (3500000-1000000)(A/P, 15%, 25)
+ (1000000)(0.15) = $536749
Annual O&M Cost = 0.05(3500000) + 150000 = 325000
Total Equivalent Annual Cost, AEC(15%) = 536749 + 325000 = 861749
Required Monthly Charge = 861749/(12 x 50 x 0.85) = $1690

Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is the discounted rate that equates the present value of a projected cash inflows to the present value of the project's costs. The discount rate which sets the NPV of all cash flows equal to 0. Helps to determine the YIELD on an investment.
NPV = 0 = initial investment + Cash flow year 1/(1+IRR) + ... so on

Example: An investment of a new machine requires $345000 and the estimated market value of the machine after 6 years is $115000. Annual revenue attributable to the new machine will be $120000. Whereas additional annual expenses will be $22000. Determine the IRR if the corporation ;s MARR is 20%...
PW = 0 = -345000+(120000-22000)(P/A,i%,6)+(120000-22000)(P/A,i%,6)
when i=20%, PW=19413
when i=25%, PW=-25621
hence i=22.16%

External Rate of Return (ERR) takes into account the interest rate, external to a project at which net cash flows generated by a project over its life can be reinvested. This is usually the MARR.

Tuesday, March 22, 2011

Teemo - The Swift Scout

In addition to his duties as scout leader—which include planning the soap-box derby, teaching new recruits the scout's pledge, and judging the yearly s'more-eating contest—Teemo is also responsible for the defense of Bantam City itself.
In Teemo's bestselling autobiography, Accuracy by Volume, the leader of the Bantam City Scouts expounds on yordle military tactics, such as blow-dart carpet bombing, and filling trebuchets with poison-tipped sewing needles.
Though he can often be found in the courtyard outside the practice arenas signing copies of his book, Teemo is really at the Institute of War for another reason. He has come, as the emissary for the entire yordle nation, to petition the League of Legends to start a new type of tournament. His proposition includes wood carving, rope bridge building, and campfire cooking to the list of approve forms of "combat" sanctioned inside the Institute. So far, he hasn't had much luck. 

Monday, March 21, 2011

Principles of Money-Time Relationship

Capital: Wealth in the form of money or property that can be used to produce more wealth.

Engineering economy studies involves the commitment of capital for extended periods of time. Since, money has its time value, and if money is not invested, the value suffer loses due to interest rates, inflation, currency exchange etc.

Interest: Money paid for the use of borrowed money. It is the rental charge for using an asset over some period of time and then, returning the asset in the same conditions as we received it.

Interest exists to encounter the risk of possibility that borrower will be unable to pay. Moreover, money repaid in the future faces inflation. Besides, the lender would need to undergo transaction costs and opportunity cost. This way, postponement of use of money occurred. On the other hand, interest is always a cost for borrowers.

An example of decision dilemma:
Take a Lump Sum or Annual Installments
A married couple won 4D and they had to choose between a single lump sum $104 million, or & 198 million paid out over 25 years ($7.92 million per year). The winning couple opted for the lump sum. Did they make the right choice? What basis do we make such an economic comparison?

We must be able to compare the value of money at different point in time. We need to develop a method for reducing a sequence of benefits and costs to a single point of time and make our comparison on that basis.

Time value of money is measured in terms of interest rate.

Key Terms
Interest rate (i)
Interest period (n)
Number of interest periods (N)
A plan for receipt (An)
Future amount of money (F)

Method of Calculating interest
Simple Interest: The practice of charging interest rate only to initial sum.
Compound interest: The practice of charging interest rate to initial sum and to any previously accumulated interest that has not been withdrawn.

Simple Interest
I = P x N x i
and he total amount repaid at the end is P + I

Example: If $5000 were loaned for five years at a simple interest rate of 7% per year, the interest earned would be...
I = $5000 x 5 x 0.07 = $1750
So, the total amount repaid at the end of five years would be the original amount plus the interest, $6750.

Compound Interest
n = N : F = P(1+i)^N

Example: If you deposit $100 now (n=0) and $200 two years from now (n=2) in a saving account that pays 10% interest, how much would you have at the end of year 10?
$100(1+0.1)^10 = $259
$200(1+0.1)^8 = $429
F = $259 + $429 = $688

Economic Equivalence exists between cash flow that have the same economic effect and could therefore be traded for one another. Although the amounts and timing of the cash flows may differ, the appropriate interest rate makes them equal.

Example: At an 8% interest, what is the equivalent worth of $3000 back in 5years.
F = $3000(1+0.08)^-5 = $2042

n=0, deposit $500
n=3, deposit $1000
find n=1 and n=2 at equivalent values(V)...
V,n2 = $500(1+0.1)^2 + $1000(1+0.1)^-1 = $1514.09
V,n2 = C(1+0.1)^1 + C
C = $721, for n=1 and n=2

Deferred annuities are uniform series that do not begin until some time in the future. Uniform series explains cash flows that changed by a constant amount each period.

Sunday, March 20, 2011

Water from the sky, Rain

Is rain a medium that would chill our earth? It is true that water has the ability to absorb heat and its heat capacity is kinda huge. If the sprinkling rain are cold water, definitely earth can be chilled. 
What if the rain water turned hot? We will be like living hell ><
Yet so far, the global warming hasn't change this medium of ours and the earth is still safe.
Snow is even better^^
Peace, isn't it? =)

What do it means by Noob

Actually, a noob and newbie are not the same. Newbies are those who are new to some task and  possibly a little overconfident about it, but they are willing to learn and fix their errors to move out of that stage. Noobs, on the other hand, know little and have no will to learn any more but often they expect people to do the work for them and then expect to get praised about it.

Noobs are often referred to as noobs as a sign of disrespect toward them.

Saturday, March 19, 2011

Persian Empire

This kingdom is built on sand and delivered water far from its source. It created garden out of desert and observes the water table in the ground with their hydrological knowledge. The Persian's engineering also created boat bridge and highway for war and postage.

Friday, March 18, 2011

Caitlyn - The Sheriff of Piltover

One of the reasons Piltover is known as the City of Progress is because it has an extraordinarily low crime rate. This hasn't always been the case; brigands and thieves of all sorts used to find the city-state an ideal mark for plunder, primarily due to the valuable resources it imports to fuel its techmaturgical research. Some even theorize that it would have fallen long ago to the chaos of organized crime if not for Caitlyn, the Sheriff of Piltover. 

Born the daughter of a wealthy statesman and a pioneering hextech researcher, CaitLyn discovered her natural gift for invEstigation when, at age 14, her father was Assaulted and robbed on his way home. She snuck out of her house that night with her father's rifle and tracked down the muGgers from the crime scene. At first, her parents did their best to discoUrage her from such risky hobbies, but she was incorrigiblE. Wishing to proteCt her daughter in the only way she knew how, Caitlyn's motheR began outfitting her with techmAturgical devices tailored to her sleuthing needs. Caitlyn quickly gained notoriety, both because she was single handedly defeating crime in Piltover and also because she soon developed into a ravishing beauty. She never backed down from a case or a challenge, and she was one of the sharpest shots in the city-state. Her services were soon requested by Demacia to help track down a mysterious outlaw who had begun committing high-proFile heists. The bandiT, who always left a card with an ornate 'C' at the scene of the crime, became Caitlyn's arch-nemesis. 

To this day, Caitlyn still searches for this cat burglar, and the chase has led her all across Valoran. She has joined the League to hone her skills and gain the influence necessary to track down the only quarry that has managed to evade her. 'Go ahead, run. I'll give you a five minute head start.' -Caitlyn, from her book 'Target Practice'.

Wednesday, March 16, 2011

Cassiopeia - The Serpent's Embrace

While her sister Katarina has always been the most celebrated member of the household, the Du Couteau family has a long history of service to Noxus. It has often been said that no soldier has ever been as fortunate as General Du Couteau to have been graced with daughters. His youngest, Cassiopeia - despite lacking her sister's killer instincts - was equally renowned in court for her stately character and elegance. Cunning as she was beautiful, the temptress could never be found far from the arm of any foreign dignitary, her wiles prying secrets from the lips of even the most wary attach�. With the Noxian barbarian pacification campaign having ground to a standstill, Cassiopeia had set her sights on a diplomat from a tribe of the Freljord region. 

Thinking him an easy mark, the scheming seductress set about beguiling him. He refused to confide in her, however, until she swore an oath of secrecy upon his sword - a strange weapon with a serpentine curve to the blade. Once her tryst was over, Cassiopeia provisioned her father with information regarding the barbarian resistance. As she divulged this intelligence, a wave of revulsion washed over her. She screamed in agony as her silky skin hardened to scales, her lustrous hair thickened to leather, and her manicured fingernails sharpened to claws. Dazed, she fell upon a group of horrified servants, rending them limb from limb in a heartbeat. 

When it was over the blood soaked figure was no longer the ravishing jewel of the Noxian court, but a horror trapped somewhere between woman and serpent. Unable to serve in her traditional capacity, Cassiopeia departed for the League, continuing her service to Noxus on the Fields of Justice. 'Though she may have appeared the innocent flower, she was the serpent under it.' - Katarina, the Sinister Blade

Nunu - The Yeti Rider

The Freljord is an unforgiving place, a mountainous land covered in snow and ice. Travel, especially in the winter, can be very dangerous. The elements often claim even those who have spent their entire lives there. The boy known as Nunu is one of those who fell prey to such tragedy.

One day when he was a young child, Nunu rode on his father’s back as they returned from a trapping expedition in the mountains. An unexpected blizzard came upon them, forcing them to seek refuge in a cave. The tempest lasted for days. Nunu's father had to leave to find food, but never returned. Eventually the blizzard cleared and the young child lay dying on the mountainside.

Fortunately, this was the land of the yetis, powerful beasts with whom Nunu’s father had secured an arrangement for safe passage. A young yeti boy named Willump found Nunu and brought him home. From then on, Nunu was raised by the yetis. When the League of Legends was formed, the yetis knew they needed a champion. Riding his brother Willump, Nunu became that champion.

Tuesday, March 15, 2011

What is Results and Discussions

Results answer main hypothesis or research questions. It should be clear, concise, simple and enough details to allow the reader to determine whether the effect of the experimental treatment produced the significant statistical value. Results do no need comment or any attachment but in presentation, tables and graphs are significant data for comparison or show trend.

Discussion do not repeat what results spoke. It was written from simple beginning to complex conclusion. It explains how the results answer the question under study and emphasize what is new, different, or important about your results. Alternative explanations for the results are always welcome but never give incidental observations.

Discussion can be done by asking few questions such as:
Do you agree with the result based on your hypothesis?
What theory and practical consideration that generally has in common?
Any explained for undesired outcome?
Any problems while carrying operation the research?
Any suggestions for future research?

The conclusion should be made in the range of the data and the design of the study.

Monday, March 14, 2011

What is Methodology

A Methodology is a documentation of process of project that contains procedures, definitions and explanations of techniques used to collect, store, analyze and present information as part of a research process. Methodology always specify processes that need to be followed.

Methodology writing requires careful attention due to gathering a lot of material. It should becomes a guide to provide an inspiration or assistance and there is no way in which looking at a methodology will create mysteries in doing some research for the first time in life.

Saturday, March 12, 2011

What is Literature Review

It is about reviewing the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contribution towards a particular subject. Nevertheless, they are secondary sources that do not report any new or original experimental work but as a thesis for preceding a research and results section.

A literature review must be
  • organized around and related directly to the thesis 
  • synthesize results into a summary of what is and is not known
  • identify areas of controversy in the literature
  • formulate questions that need further research
A literature review is a piece of discursive prose, not a list describing or summarizing one piece of literature after another. You are not trying to list all the material published, but to synthesize and evaluate it according to the guiding concept of your thesis or research question.

Thursday, March 10, 2011

What is Problem Statement

A problem statement is a script that answer these questions: what, how, where, when, why, and who.

The first step is to write down the problem at current state and expand on them by asking the following questions:

who is/isn't affected.
what is/isn't affected.
how does/doesn't it affected.
when is/isn't the problem.
where is/isn't the problem.

The Second step derives desirable outcome.

Problem statement is usually short and focuses on only one problem. It does not suggest a solution.

what is Introduction

The introduction provides general ideas of what the thesis is about. Basically, it contains paper topic, reasons of the topic, background information of the topic, goals to achieve, and tasks to complete in order to attain the goals, or direction of the thesis research development.

The main tasks of the thesis introduction is to attract the readers’ attention. Therefore, good thesis introduction uses simple language and terms related to the topic so that reader can easily understand.

What is Abstract

Abstract is another word 'summary' of a research where the reader should be able to quickly ascertain the paper's purpose. It is prepared at the beginning of a manuscript and conveys the main results plus conclusions of an article. In general, abstract helps many organizations in selecting research papers for presentation.

The common structure of an abstract based on four elements which are objectives, methods, results and conclusions/recommendations. Typical length ranges from 100-500 words, but rarely more than a page.

Wednesday, March 9, 2011


Eagle's head and wings with a lion's body, it is said to be the kings of all beasts on land and sky. Griffins mated for life and would continue living their lives only with one partner. These majestic creatures also signify courage and boldness.

They are known for guarding treasure and symboled of divine power. Aren't they beautiful?

Tuesday, March 8, 2011

Geomancer, Earth Mage

Geomancer controls earth and nature. They can cause spikes or walls of stone to rise from the ground and lead plants to capture and hold an opponent and open up a pit of quicksand through dust.

Those higher level can design serial earthquake and summon walking trees. They are the master of earth, plants, crystals, and other metals.

Hydromancer, Water Bender

Typical Hydromancer can senses water spot and move them under different phrases from land and sky. Many of them can breath underwater and they do not get soak.

Talented Hydromancer can control any water body including living creatures. Some of them can create mirage out of nowhere too.

Aeromancer, Air Bender

These people are born with ability to manipulates air currents to levitate oneself or other objects or people. They control air particles that form bubble air underwater and vacuum combustion. They also pressure the air so that they can walk over it and influence the weather including storms, fog and hurricane.

Powerful Aeromancer could draw meteors and shooting stars.

Monday, March 7, 2011

I know Kangaroo

When European explorers first saw kangaroos in Australia, they asked an aborigine for they name and he replied ‘Kangaroo’ to mean ‘I don’t understand your question’. Hence the explorers took ‘kangaroo’ as the name of the animals.

Fast and faster

Although Cheetahs are known for being the fastest among all animals, they are easily heat up when speeding. Therefore, they must stop after running for a minute or they will die from overheating.

New born Cheetahs are transferred from places to places every few days so that lions, hyenas and other predators cannot find them easily. Still, the cubs could barely survive in such situation within 3 months of birth.
Cheetah was once tamed for hunting purposes by royalties. They usually prey on livestock when their homes are being converted to farms in ancient time.

MRT track in Singapore

We can tour many places in Singapore easily through MRT. Usually, people would purchase the green ‘standard ticket’ which they had to return it after used to reclaim their $1 deposit. Some people say that purchasing ‘easylink’ (another type of card) doesn’t really worth as it consumes $5 merely for card ownership. However easylink gives us cheaper traveling rate thus it would be worth if we could pile up our saving up to $5 for the whole Singapore trip.

MRT is undeniably convenience especially during transit. We could directly approach another train shortly after debarking. However, one thing that I’d noticed is that the people there always rush to get onboard without really care if others want to disembark.

Talking about Tiger

According to Singapore Zoo, this giant cat can be as big as 3m long and 1m tall. A typical record shows that Tiger can run 70km/h fast and jump 10m far. They kill their prey with one bite on their necks and suffocate them.
The first white tiger was found in India. They have blue eyes and a pink nose. In fact, they are not some extraordinary species but inherited with genetically distorted beings.
Only 5 among 8 species of Tiger remain in this world today and 7000 wild tigers left alive. They are the Siberian Tiger, South China Tiger, Bengal Tiger, Indochinese Tiger and Sumatran Tiger. Javan Tiger, Caspian Tiger and Balinese Tiger have long extinct since human believed that Tigers are excellent for medical consumption for many decades ago and started hunting them.
Tigers are known to be the kings of jungle, carrying the character ‘king’ on their foreheads and only live in Asia. There are no tigers in Africa at all.
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